Below is a list of the hepatitis blood transfusion risks.
Hepatitis is a blood related disease or blood born disease that is transferred by blood transfusion as well as other pathways.
First, an overview of the hepatitis blood transfusion risks and alternative modes of transmission.
Hepatitis A (HVA) is a vaccine preventable infectious disease.
The fecal-oral route is the most common way HAV transmission occurs. It can be from either personal contact or ingestion of contaminated food or water.
Household exposure, sexual contact and travel to hepatitis A endemic countries increase the risk.
The transmission of HAV through blood transfusion is possible. This is due to pooled plasma from multiple donors and solvent detergent method of viral inactivation being ineffective for HAV.
Hepatitis B (HBV) is a vaccine preventable disease in most cases. Very few will be nonreactive to the vaccine. It is unknown if the vaccine is effective in this portion of the population.
HBV is transmitted through the skin with injection drug use, exposure to contaminated blood or bodily fluids, heterosexual or male homosexual activities, and from mother to infant through breast feeding.
According to the American Red Cross, about one transfusion in about 205,000 transfusions transmits hepatitis B.
Hepatitis C (HCV) on 2007 was estimated world wide, that one in 12 have hepatitis B or C.
In 2007, there were million cases in the US with 35,000 to 185,000 new cases a year being diagnosed. In 2016, there was 2,967 cases of acute hepatitis C reported to CDC. Since it is under-diagnosed, estimates of the actual number of acute hepatitis C cases was closer to 41,200 in 2016. In 2016, there were an estimated 2.4 million people living with hepatitis C in the United States. In 2015 there were71 million living with it around the world.
Why the dramatic drop in the numbers? According to some, previous epidemiological surveys only looked at whether there was antibodies against the virus in those tested. This was a far less precise way to measure.
Those who received blood transfusions prior to 1992 are at risk of having Hepatitis C and not knowing it.
According to the American Red Cross, about one transfusion in about 2 million transfusions transmits hepatitis C. As of January 2019, there is no vaccine.
Uncommon in the US, it relies on HBV to replicate. There is no vaccine.
Hepatitis E (HEV), rare in the United States, endemic in parts of Asia and Africa, usually found in travelers.
Similar to HAV, it is transmitted primarily through the fecal oral route. Infection in pregnant women may cause severe complications and death.
It is possible that the virus can be transmitted through blood transfusion.
Currently, blood units are not tested for HEV infection. The solvent-detergent method / heat method of viral inactivation are implemented to reduce the amount of HEV in pooled plasma. However, these cannot completely eliminate HEV contamination from plasma.
More information to come on the hepatitis blood transfusion risk associated with this.
Hepatitis I (AIH) Autoimmune Hepatitis
Hepatitis G (HGV) or GB virus C (GBV-C) infection is for the most part, with out symptoms. Sometimes it is a co-infection with B and C although it does not change the disease process.
HGV/GBV-C is primarily transmitted through blood transfusion. It can be transmitted by organ transplantation, hemodialysis, bisexual, homosexual activities, injection drug use, and from mother to fetus.
There are no screening tests for HGV/GBV-C infection.
Not enough information available at this time. One case of an AIH patient was reported where she developed TRALI as a result of a plasma transfusion.
Transfusion Transmitted Virus (TTV) is prevalent among the donor population. It is particularly prevalent in patients who have received multiple transfusions. TTV is not associated with any hepatitis or other clinical disease. The virus, as its name implies, is transmitted through blood transfusion. Presence in the donor population is as high as 60 percent yet blood units are not routinely screened for TTV infection.
SEN virus (SEN-V), discovered in 1999 more prevalent among individuals infected with HIV, HBV or HCV than in the general population. SEN-V infection usually has no symptoms to note and it has not been associated with any other form of hepatitis.
SEN-V can be transmitted through blood transfusions. SEN-V infection in blood donors is 2% with approximately 30% of of those receiving infected transfusions actually becoming infected.
There is no way to prevent SEN-V transmission.
There will be more hepatitis blood transfusion risks in the future. It has been suggested that there are not enough letters in the alphabet to cover all the different types of hepatitis.
There is a way to avoid the hepatitis blood transfusion risks. Opt for bloodless medicine and surgery. You will need to find a health care team experienced and capable in the practice.
Also boosting the intracellular glutathione will not only help with fighting disease, studies show it boosts blood counts.
If surgery is needed, it could make it safer.
If you already have hepatitis, many are successfully keeping their numbers down and avoiding the drugs by using cysteine. It is an interesting option to manage hepatitis.
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